UN migration conference in Marrakech: What is at stake?


It is hoped The Conference will agree new measures to make life safer and more dignified for people on the move. The text of the agreement, formally known as the Global Compact For Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, agreed by Member States under the auspices of the UN General Assembly last July.

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UN migration conference in Marrakech

Top politicians and officials from across the world will gather in Marrakech, Morocco this weekend, ahead of a major conference  convened by the UN, to formally adopt an all-inclusive, extensive global agreement aimed at making migration safer, and more dignified for all.

The text of the agreement, formally known as the  Global Compact For Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, was agreed by Member States under the auspices of the UN General Assembly last July,

About Conference:

The Intergovernmental Conference to Adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, will be held in Marrakech, Morocco on 10 and 11 December 2018.

This Intergovernmental Conference is convened under the auspices of the General Assembly of the United Nations and held pursuant to the “New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants”  (19 September 2016) which decided to launch a process of intergovernmental negotiations leading to the adoption of a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration.

§ [Visit the Intergovernmental Conference website]

Questions?

☛ Regular migrants, irregular migrants, and refugees…What’s the difference?

☛ What’s at stake for those on the move and their communities?

☛ What is the Global Compact?

☛ Migration is a human phenomenon…Why address it now?

☛ What to watch for during the conference   [Answers]

Millions more migrant workers, means countries lose ‘most productive part’ of workforce

According to the second edition of ILO’s   Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers, approximately 164 million people left home in search of work between 2013 and 2017 – a nine per cent increase since 2013, when that number stood at 150 million.

Where do migrants live?

Of the 164 million migrant workers worldwide, approximately:

☛ 111.2 million, or 67.9 per cent, live in high-income countries.

☛ 30.5 million, or 18.6 per cent, in upper middle-income countries.

☛ 16.6 million, or 10.1 per cent, in lower middle-income countries,

☛ 5.6 million, or 3.4 per cent, in low-income countries.  [Read more]

 

Immigrant integration policies have improved but challenges remain

Many countries have made important improvements in integrating immigrants and their children into the labour market and day-to-day life of their country. However, many challenges remain and much of the potential that migrants bring with them remains unused, hampering both economic growth and social inclusion, according to a new joint OECD-EU report.

  Settling In 2018: Indicators of Immigrant Integration finds that the proportion of highly educated   immigrants has grown in virtually all OECD and EU countries, rising by 7 percentage points over the past decade in both areas. At the same time, in all countries, most immigrants express a strong sense of belonging to their host-country, with more than 80% reporting feeling close or very close to this country.

“Countries have made important improvements in their policies to foster the integration of immigrants and their children into education, the labour market and the social life of their country,” said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría, launching the report in Marrakesh on the eve of the United Nations Intergovernmental Conference to adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration. “Nevertheless, much remains to be done to maximise the still untapped potential of migrants to contribute economically and socially to their recipient countries.”

“Making immigrant integration work is absolutely vital for our economies and societies as a whole,” said European Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship, Dimitris Avramopoulos, at the launch. “We need to make sure that all those who have a right to stay and live in our societies, become full and equal participants. Not only on paper but also in reality.”

Despite some improvements, immigrants have often not managed to translate higher overall education levels into better labour market outcomes. Immigrants’ relative poverty is also today more widespread than a decade ago, further widening the gaps with the native-born. Around 14% of all foreign-born people in the EU report facing discrimination on the grounds of ethnicity, nationality or race. The report also notes that almost a third of non-EU migrants in Europe state that most inhabitants of their neighbourhoods share their ethnic background.

Educational attainment levels and outcomes of youth with immigrant parents have also increased in most countries over the past decade – both in absolute terms and relative to their peers with native-born parents. This is evident in better educational outcomes and higher resilience at age 15, in lower levels of school dropout rates and higher educational attainment. However, immigrant children continue to lag behind their peers with native-born parents, notably in Europe, while the reverse is the case in only a few non-EU OECD countries such as Canada.

While immigrant men have a 3 percentage points higher employment rate than native-born men across the OECD, immigrant women have a 1 percentage point lower rate than their native-born peers, amounting to a full 6 point gap in Europe. Gaps between immigrant and native-born women are especially wide in Belgium and France, at 14 percentage points, and in the Netherlands, at almost 17 points. When employed, immigrant women are also more often in part-time and low-skilled jobs – notably in Southern Europe (except Portugal), as well as in Chile, Korea and Slovenia, where over 30% of employed immigrant women are in low-skilled jobs.

Following an overall increase in their share over the past decade, women now account for the majority of immigrants living in OECD and EU countries. The report also finds that the widespread inactivity and part-time employment of immigrant women is often involuntary, more often than for their native-born peers.

Settling In 2018: Indicators of Immigrant Integration presents a detailed international comparison of the outcomes of immigrants and their children and their evolution over time, for all European Union and OECD countries as well as selected G20 countries. 74 indicators cover key dimensions of integration, including employment, education, housing, health, civic engagement and social inclusion. There is a special focus on young people with immigrant parents and on gender issues.  [The report is available at]

Les politiques d’intégration des immigrés s’est améliorée mais des difficultés subsistent

L’intégration des immigrés et de leurs enfants sur le marché du travail s’est amélioré dans de nombreux pays ainsi que leurs conditions de vie. Il ressort cependant d’un nouveau rapport conjoint OCDE-UE que de nombreuses difficultés persistent et que les compétences que les immigrés apportent avec eux restent largement inexploitées, entravant à la fois la croissance économique et l’inclusion sociale.

Ce rapport, qui s’intitule Trouver ses marques 2018 : Indicateurs de l’intégration des immigrés, indique que la part d’immigrés ayant un niveau d’éducation élevé a progressé dans la quasi-totalité des pays de l’OCDE et de l’UE, gagnant 7 points de pourcentage ces dix dernières années dans les deux zones. Dans le même temps, dans l’ensemble des pays, la plupart des immigrés expriment leur attachement à leur pays d’accueil avec plus de 80 % d’entre eux déclarant se sentir proches voire très proches de ce pays.

« Les pays ont beaucoup amélioré les politiques visant à promouvoir l’intégration des immigrés et de leurs enfants dans l’éducation, sur le marché du travail et dans la vie sociale », a déclaré Angel Gurría, Secrétaire général de l’OCDE, à l’occasion du lancement du rapport à Marrakech à la veille de la Conférence intergouvernementale des Nations Unies chargée d’adopter le Pacte mondial pour des migrations sûres, ordonnées et régulières. « Il reste néanmoins beaucoup à faire pour aider l’ensemble des immigrés à participer économiquement et socialement aux sociétés d’accueil. »

« L’intégration des immigrés est absolument vitale pour nos économies et nos sociétés dans leur ensemble », a déclaré Dimitris Avramopoulos, Commissaire européen chargé de la migration, des affaires intérieures et de la citoyenneté, lors du lancement. « Nous devons veiller à ce que tous ceux qui ont le droit de rester et de vivre dans nos sociétés puissent y participer pleinement et équitablement. Non seulement sur le papier, mais aussi dans la réalité ».

Malgré quelques améliorations, les immigrés ne parviennent pas souvent à traduire des niveaux d’études globalement plus élevés que ceux de la population née dans le pays en de meilleurs résultats sur le marché du travail. La pauvreté relative des immigrés est également plus répandue aujourd’hui qu’il y a dix ans, creusant ainsi davantage l’écart avec les personnes nées dans le pays. Dans l’UE, 14 % environ des personnes nées à l’étranger déclarent appartenir à un groupe victime de discrimination fondée sur l’origine ethnique ou la nationalité. Le rapport fait également observer que près d’un tiers des immigrés non originaires de l’UE qui appartiennent aux plus grands groupes issus de l’immigration dans leurs pays respectifs en Europe indiquent être de la même origine ethnique que la plupart des habitants de leur quartier.

Le niveau d’études et les résultats scolaires des jeunes descendants d’immigrés ont également progressé dans la plupart des pays ces dix dernières années, à la fois en termes absolus et par rapport aux jeunes descendants de parents nés dans le pays. Cela se manifeste par de meilleurs résultats scolaires et une plus grande résilience à l’âge de 15 ans, par des taux plus faibles de décrochage scolaire et par un niveau d’études plus élevé. Toutefois, les enfants d’immigrés continuent d’accuser un certain retard par rapport aux enfants de parents nés dans le pays, notamment en Europe, tandis que l’inverse est vrai dans quelques pays seulement, par exemple au Canada.

Si, dans l’ensemble de l’OCDE, les hommes immigrés affichent un taux d’emploi supérieur de 3 points de pourcentage à celui des hommes nés dans le pays, les femmes immigrées enregistrent quant à elles un taux d’emploi inférieur de 1 point de pourcentage à celui des femmes nées dans le pays, l’écart s’établissant à pas moins de 6 points en Europe. L’écart entre les femmes immigrées et les femmes nées dans le pays est particulièrement important en Belgique et en France, où il atteint 14 points de pourcentage, et aux Pays-Bas, avec près de 17 points. Par ailleurs, les immigrées qui sont en emploi occupent plus souvent un emploi peu qualifié et à temps partiel, notamment dans l’Europe du Sud (sauf au Portugal), mais aussi au Chili, en Corée et en Slovénie, où plus de 30 % des immigrées qui travaillent occupent des emplois peu qualifiés.

La part de femmes dans la population immigrée a globalement augmenté ces dix dernières années et ces dernières sont aujourd’hui plus nombreuses que les hommes immigrés vivant dans un pays de l’OCDE ou de l’UE. Le rapport indique aussi que l’inactivité et l’emploi à temps partiel, qui sont fréquents chez les femmes immigrées, sont souvent subis, plus souvent que chez les femmes nées dans le pays.

Le rapport Trouver ses marques 2018 : Indicateurs de l’intégration des immigrés présente une comparaison internationale détaillée des résultats des immigrés et de leurs enfants, ainsi que leur évolution au fil du temps, pour l’ensemble des pays de l’Union européenne et de l’OCDE mais aussi pour certains pays du G20. Au travers de 74 indicateurs, il examine les dimensions clés de l’intégration, notamment l’emploi, l’éducation, le logement, la santé, l’engagement civique et l’inclusion sociale. Une attention spéciale est accordée aux jeunes descendants d’immigrés et aux disparités entre les femmes et les hommes. [Le rapport est disponible]

Reactions:

The Secretary General of the 47-nation Council of Europe, Thorbjørn Jagland, has expressed his support for the United Nations Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration which is due to be adopted in Marrakech next week:

“Migration is one of the biggest challenges of our time. It affects the well-being, dignity and sometimes even the survival of millions of people, many of whom are fleeing war zones, persecution or natural disasters.

“The Council of Europe has contributed to the Global Compact, which will help to promote cooperation between countries and also at the international level. The human rights of refugee and migrant children, in particular, deserve special attention.

“Ahead of Monday’s anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, I would like to pay tribute to the foresight and determination of UN Secretary General António Guterres in making the Global Compact a reality.”

The Council of Europe’s  European Convention on Human Rights, based on the UN Declaration, enables over 830 million people to bring claims of alleged human rights violations before the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

Global Union Movement Says Refugees Welcome

The global trade union movement stands with the world’s 68 million refugees. While on a visit to Malmö, Sweden, trade union delegates from around the world demonstrated their support for the equal treatment of refugees and migrants so people are not exploited.

“Trade unions stand against racism and xenophobia, and stand for migrants and refugees. We stand for universal social protection, minimum living wages and collective bargaining as the tools of shared prosperity and inclusion. Solidarity is at the heart of the trade union movement. We stand united against the forces that drive people to flee their homes. Further marginalising the world’s most vulnerable cannot be the answer. Refugees are welcome in our workplaces and our communities, and we demand the guarantee of equal treatment, including full protection and rights under labour law” said Sharan Burrow, General Secretary, ITUC.

The city counts 182 nationalities among its 330,000 inhabitants. “Whatever happens around the world, it affects us. We are working hard to make everyone aware of the opposite: everything we do locally affects the world” explained Mayor Katrin Stjenrfeldt.

The city played a central role in Sweden’s efforts to provide refuge to those most in need during the refugee crisis. “This city is a symbol of unity in diversity. 40 per cent of people here were born outside of Sweden, or their parents were born outside of Sweden” said Sharan Burrow.

§ Version française: [Le Congrès mondial de la CSI déclare « Bienvenue aux réfugiés »]

Türkiye ve Uluslararası Göç:

§ [Birleşmiş Milletler Küresel Göç Sözleşmesi ve Türkiye]

§ [Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Göç Politikalarına Bakışı, 1923-2023]

§ [İçişleri Bakanlığı Göç Kurulu]

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