Declarations, Remarks, NATO-EU Joint Declaration, EU-US Meeting, Analysis…
NATO leaders bolster collective deterrence and defence
NATO’s 28 leaders took decisions to bolster the Alliance’s deterrence and defence at the first working session of the Warsaw Summit on Friday (8 July 2016). The leaders decided to send more forces to the eastern part of the Alliance, declared a milestone for Ballistic Missile Defence, and decided to recognise cyberspace as an operational domain. Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg welcomed the result, saying “the decisions we have taken today will help keep our nations safe in a more dangerous world.”
The leaders agreed to enhance NATO’s military presence in the east, with four battalions in Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on a rotational basis – to be in place starting next year. The Secretary General welcomed that Canada will lead the battalion for Latvia, Germany will lead in Lithuania, the United Kingdom will lead in Estonia, and the United States will lead in Poland. He also commended other Allies for announcing contributions to these battalions, and thanked the host nations for their support. Allies further agreed to develop a tailored forward presence in the south-eastern part of the Alliance.
Leaders also decided to declare Initial Operational Capability of NATO’s Ballistic Missile Defence. “This means that the US ships based in Spain, the radar in Turkey, and the interceptor site in Romania are now able to work together under NATO command and NATO control,” said Mr. Stoltenberg.
Leaders pledged to strengthen their own cyber defences, and recognised cyberspace as a new operational domain. “This means better protecting our networks and our missions and operations, with more focus on cyber training and planning,” the Secretary General said.
Leaders also reviewed and reconfirmed the importance of spending more and spending better on defence. The Secretary General welcomed that 2015 was the first year in many with a small increase in defence spending, and that estimates for 2016 show a further increase of 3%, or US $8 billion. “We still have a long way to go, but I believe that we have turned a corner,” he said.
The Secretary General stressed that “NATO poses no threat to any country,” and continues to seek constructive dialogue with Russia. Calling the NATO-Russia Council “an important tool to manage our relationship,” Mr Stoltenberg recalled that a new meeting of the NATO-Russia Council will be held at ambassadorial level in Brussels on 13 July.
NATO leaders will further discuss current security challenges this evening, joined by their counterparts from Finland and Sweden, and the Presidents of the European Council and the European Commission.
Joint declaration by the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission, and the Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
We believe that the time has come to give new impetus and new substance to the NATO-EU strategic partnership.
In consultation with the EU Member States and the NATO Allies, working with, and for the benefit of all, this partnership will take place in the spirit of full mutual openness and in compliance with the decision-making autonomy and procedures of our respective organisations and without prejudice to the specific character of the security and defence policy of any of our members.
Today, the Euro-Atlantic community is facing unprecedented challenges emanating from the South and East. Our citizens demand that we use all ways and means available to address these challenges so as to enhance their security.
All Allies and Member States, as well as the EU and NATO per se, are already making significant contributions to Euro-Atlantic security. The substantial cooperation between NATO and the EU, unique and essential partners, established more than 15 years ago, also contributes to this end.
In light of the common challenges we are now confronting, we have to step-up our efforts: we need new ways of working together and a new level of ambition; because our security is interconnected; because together we can mobilize a broad range of tools to respond to the challenges we face; and because we have to make the most efficient use of resources. A stronger NATO and a stronger EU are mutually reinforcing. Together they can better provide security in Europe and beyond.
We are convinced that enhancing our neighbours’ and partners’ stability in accordance with our values, as enshrined in the UN Charter, contributes to our security and to sustainable peace and prosperity. So that our neighbours and partners are better able to address the numerous challenges they currently face, we will continue to support their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, as well as their reform efforts.
In fulfilling the objectives above, we believe there is an urgent need to:
° Boost our ability to counter hybrid threats, including by bolstering resilience, working together on analysis, prevention, and early detection, through timely information sharing and, to the extent possible, intelligence sharing between staffs; and cooperating on strategic communication and response. The development of coordinated procedures through our respective playbooks will substantially contribute to implementing our efforts.
° Broaden and adapt our operational cooperation including at sea, and on migration, through increased sharing of maritime situational awareness as well as better coordination and mutual reinforcement of our activities in the Mediterranean and elsewhere.
° Expand our coordination on cyber security and defence including in the context of our missions and operations, exercises and on education and training.
° Develop coherent, complementary and interoperable defence capabilities of EU Member States and NATO Allies, as well as multilateral projects.
° Facilitate a stronger defence industry and greater defence research and industrial cooperation within Europe and across the Atlantic.
° Step up our coordination on exercises, including on hybrid, by developing as the first step parallel and coordinated exercises for 2017 and 2018.
° Build the defence and security capacity and foster the resilience of our partners in the East and South in a complementary way through specific projects in a variety of areas for individual recipient countries, including by strengthening maritime capacity.
Cooperation in these areas is a strategic priority. Speedy implementation is essential. The European External Action Service and the NATO International Staff, together with Commission services as appropriate, will develop concrete options for implementation, including appropriate staff coordination mechanisms, to be presented to us and our respective Councils by December 2016. On the EU side, the High Representative/Vice President of the Commission will steer and coordinate this endeavour.
We will review progress on a regular basis.
We call on both organisations to invest the necessary political capital and resources to make this reinforced partnership a success.
Signed at Warsaw on 8 July 2016 in triplicate.
Donald Tusk President of the European Council – Jean-Claude Juncker
President of the European Commission – Jens Stoltenberg Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
DÉCLARATION COMMUNE DU PRÉSIDENT DU CONSEIL EUROPÉEN, DU PRÉSIDENT DE LA COMMISSION EUROPÉENNE ET DU SECRÉTAIRE GÉNÉRAL DE L’ORGANISATION DU TRAITÉ DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD
Nous pensons que le moment est venu de conférer au partenariat stratégique OTAN-UE un nouvel élan et une nouvelle teneur.
En consultation avec les États membres de l’UE et ceux de l’OTAN, œuvrant avec chacun et pour le bien de tous, ce partenariat prendra place dans un esprit de pleine ouverture mutuelle et dans le respect de l’autonomie décisionnelle et des procédures de nos organisations respectives, et sans affecter le caractère spécifique de la politique de sécurité et de défense de l’un quelconque de nos membres.
Aujourd’hui, la communauté euro-atlantique est confrontée à des défis sans précédent émanant du sud et de l’est. Nos citoyens entendent que nous usions de tous les moyens en notre pouvoir pour faire face à ces défis et ainsi améliorer leur sécurité.
Tous les Alliés et les États membres, ainsi que l’OTAN et l’UE elles-mêmes, apportent déjà d’importantes contributions à la sécurité euro-atlantique. La coopération substantielle établie il y a plus de quinze ans entre l’OTAN et l’UE, partenaires uniques et essentiels, y contribue également.
Au vu des défis communs auxquels nous sommes à présent confrontés, nous devons intensifier nos efforts : nous avons besoin de nouvelles façons de travailler ensemble et d’un nouveau niveau d’ambition, parce que notre sécurité est interconnectée, parce qu’ensemble, nous pouvons mobiliser un vaste éventail d’outils pour faire face à ces défis, et parce qu’il faut que nous utilisions les ressources de la manière la plus efficiente qui soit. Une OTAN plus forte et une UE plus forte se renforcent mutuellement. Ensemble, elles peuvent mieux assurer la sécurité en Europe et au-delà.
Nous sommes convaincus qu’améliorer la stabilité de nos voisins et de nos partenaires conformément à nos valeurs, telles qu’elles sont inscrites dans la Charte des Nations Unies, contribue à notre sécurité ainsi qu’à une paix et à une prospérité durables. Pour que nos voisins et nos partenaires soient mieux à même de relever les nombreux défis auxquels ils sont confrontés, nous continuerons de soutenir leur souveraineté, leur intégrité territoriale et leur indépendance, ainsi que leurs efforts de réforme.
Nous pensons que, pour atteindre ces objectifs, il est urgent de prendre les mesures suivantes.
° Accroître notre aptitude à lutter contre les menaces hybrides, notamment en améliorant la résilience, en coopérant pour l’analyse, la prévention et la détection précoce, au travers du partage de l’information en temps utile et, dans la mesure du possible, du partage du renseignement entre les services compétents, et en collaborant dans le domaine de la communication stratégique et de la réponse. L’élaboration de procédures coordonnées dans le cadre de nos manuels d’instructions respectifs contribuera de manière substantielle à la concrétisation de nos efforts.
° Élargir et adapter notre coopération opérationnelle y compris en mer, et en matière de migration, grâce à un partage accru de la connaissance de la situation maritime ainsi qu’à une meilleure coordination et à un renforcement mutuel de nos activités en Méditerranée et ailleurs.
° Étendre notre coordination dans le domaine de la cybersécurité et de la cyberdéfense, y compris dans le cadre de nos missions et opérations, de nos exercices, et en matière de formation et d’entraînement.
° Développer les capacités de défense des États membres de l’UE et des Alliés, ainsi que des projets multilatéraux, pour assurer leur cohérence, leur complémentarité et leur interopérabilité.
° Favoriser une industrie de défense plus solide, davantage de recherche en matière de défense ainsi que la coopération industrielle au sein de l’Europe et entre les deux rives de l’Atlantique.
° Intensifier notre coordination en matière d’exercices, notamment le domaine hybride, en élaborant dans un premier temps des exercices parallèles et coordonnés pour 2017 et 2018.
° Renforcer la capacité de défense et de sécurité et améliorer la résilience de nos partenaires à l’est et au sud de façon complémentaire grâce à des projets spécifiques dans toute une série de domaines pour chacun des pays bénéficiaires, y compris par un renforcement de leur capacité maritime.
La coopération dans ces domaines constitue une priorité stratégique. Une mise en œuvre rapide est essentielle. Le Service européen pour l’action extérieure et le Secrétariat international de l’OTAN, avec les services de la Commission comme il conviendra, élaboreront des options concrètes pour la mise en œuvre, y compris des mécanismes appropriés de coordination entre les services, qui devront nous être présentées ainsi qu’à nos conseils respectifs d’ici à décembre 2016. Pour l’UE, la haute représentante de l’Union européenne et vice-présidente de la Commission européenne dirigera et coordonnera cette initiative.
Nous ferons régulièrement le point sur les progrès réalisés.
Nous demandons aux deux organisations d’investir le capital politique et les ressources nécessaires pour faire de ce partenariat renforcé un succès.
Signée à Varsovie le 8 juilllet 2016 en trois exemplaires.
Remarks by President Donald Tusk
In the two years since the NATO summit in Newport, in the UK, the world as we know it has changed dramatically. Its’ most blatant example is what has happened to the then host country of that meeting. I don’t need to list the multitude of crises on our doorstep and in our backyard, you know them as well as I do.
Today, the EU and NATO face the same threats, whether they come from the East or the South, or indeed from within, in the form of challenges to the order based on liberal democratic values we have come to believe as our birth-right.
In these new realities, our citizens are demanding greater security, no matter whether they live in countries belonging to the EU, to NATO or to both. It is our democratic responsibility as leaders to deliver.
To be sure, Europe can and should do more to bolster our own capabilities and readiness, including spending more, and more wisely. However, our European initiatives should not be an alternative to cooperation with NATO. Instead of maintaining an illusion of going it alone, we need to increase our value as a NATO friend. That is why we are calling today for a strengthening of the strategic partnership between the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance. Even though our internal and external security are closely linked, sometimes it seems as if the EU and NATO were on two different planets, and not headquartered in the same city.
Our two organisations have partly overlapping but different memberships, their own rules and procedures. On the other hand, they are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Therefore, it makes sense to work more closely together.
We want to be ready to respond and coordinate our actions if and when one of our members or institutions comes under hybrid threats. We equally want to prevent attacks. This is why we intend to improve our interaction, to intensify intelligence sharing among our staffs and to conduct parallel and coordinated exercises.
At stake is real life: our critical infrastructure could be attacked, our banking systems could be hacked or our citizens could be exposed to disinformation campaigns via social networks.
As our own security starts often at the borders of our partners and neighbours, we will help them strengthen their capacity to react to various security and defence challenges as well.
To conclude, I would like to say that we are bound by much more than only common threats. The parties to the North Atlantic Treaty declared that they are, and I quote, “determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law”.The founding treaties of the European Union are based on the same principles.
Loyalty to these values remains not only a precondition for the coherence of our community, but in fact is the very reason we are ready to defend one another. Anyone who weakens these values will, in effect, lead to the weakening our security sooner or later.
Our cooperation is a strategic priority. Our greatest strength is unity of values and purpose.
EU-US leaders’ meeting : Remarks by President Donald Tusk
Before anything else, I want to say that I am deeply sorry about what has happened in Dallas. We are with you in this as well as with the families and loved ones of the victims.
This is my third, and also my last meeting in Warsaw, with Barack Obama as President of the United States of America. But I believe we will see each other again, here in Poland, perhaps in less official roles. Barack, you know that you will always be a most welcome guest here, I am sure.
Over many years we have worked together to strengthen the relations between Europe and the United States. Today, the need for such effort is even more visible. I remember when 27 years ago, it was in my hometown of Gdańsk, members of Solidarity welcomed George Bush senior outside the famous gate of the Gdańsk shipyard. We were chanting: “Nie ma wolności bez solidarności” that means “There is no freedom without solidarity”. We already knew then, that our newly-gained freedom would require defence and guarantees, which − in a global dimension − implied the closest possible cooperation between Europe and the United States. Today we can repeat that phrase with only a small change; it has preserved its meaning. “There is no freedom in Europe without Atlantic solidarity.”
Caring for the unity of the whole political community of the West is key, whether we are discussing the referendum in the United Kingdom, the situation in Ukraine or our future trade deals. We realise how much effort and how many new arguments we need, to prevent political entropy and disintegration.
We know that the geopolitical consequences of Brexit may be very serious. Maintaining the closest possible relations between the EU and the UK is in European and American interest. But it is equally important to send today a strong message to the whole world that Brexit, as sad and meaningful as it is, is just an incident, and not the beginning of a process. To all our opponents, on the inside and out, who are hoping for a sequel to Brexit, I want to say loud and clear: you won’t see on the screen the words: “to be continued.”
There is no good alternative to trans-Atlantic cooperation. All those who value our fundamental principles of freedom, the rule of law, democracy, human and civil rights, must act in favour of this cooperation. This is the essence of our ties between America, known as the New World, and Europe, known as the Old Continent. We know, however, that besides the old world and the new world, there is also a world apart, with different values and different strategic aims. And it has allies, also in the USA, in Europe, and here in Poland. In public debates in Washington, London, Berlin, Paris and Warsaw, we hear anti-democratic slogans more and more, calling for national egoisms, isolationism, Euroscepticism. It would be good if we clearly stated today that whoever turns against America, harms Europe; whoever attacks the European Union, harms America. And whoever undermines the foundations of liberal democracy, harms one and the other.
We have been building liberal democracy with determination on both sides of the Atlantic. We have followed the lessons of the same scholars, we have been inspired by the same political philosophies. We must now protect this heritage, both rich and indeed surprisingly fresh. What comes to my mind, on this occasion, is a quote by Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States of America: “In questions of powers then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.”
Remarks by President Jean-Claude Juncker
The Declaration we sign today sends a clear message: a stronger European Union means a stronger NATO, and a stronger NATO means a stronger European Union.
Our actions and our resources complement each other. But today we have decided to do more. We must use all the tools at our disposal.
This is an area where the Union has to be ambitious. Last week, Federica Mogherini presented the EU’s Global Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy to Heads of State and Government. This is a clear statement of our political ambition.
The European Union will play its part in full. Over the past 18 months, we have already done a lot. Our work is under way.
In April this year, we launched our strategy on hybrid threats. This is the mark of a changing world – where the military threat is one of many. Our European External Action Service is now working closely with NATO to take this forward, especially when it comes to detecting and responding to hybrid threats.
On cybersecurity, we launched this week a new public-private partnership to strengthen this vital sector. Over the next four years, we aim to mobilise 1.8 billion euros in new investment.
A stronger European defence requires a stronger European Defence Industry. This is possible only if Member States do cooperate.
Later this year, we will table our Defence Action Plan. It will bring together all the tools that the European Union can offer – our policies, programmes and funding – to support defence cooperation and our defence industry.
Research will play an important role, with our programmes financing new research into technologies that support the defence industry. A preparatory action worth 90 million euros is already agreed.
At the same time, we are deepening our cooperation with partners in our neighbourhood. Today more than ever, development and security go hand in hand.
Earlier this week we decided to amend our Instrument for Stability and Peace.
Thanks to our decision, we can now strengthen our partner’s capacity: between now and 2020, we will allocate up to 100 million euros to build security capabilities – including military – so that our partners can better prevent and respond to crises.
And finally, our maritime cooperation with NATO has already shown its effectiveness. As part of our response to the refugee crisis, NATO works closely with the EU’s military Operation Sophia and the EU’s border management agency, Frontex, to conduct intelligence and surveillance in the Aegean Sea.
These are the many areas where EU–NATO cooperation is practical and urgent. Our roles are complementary, but we have every reason to work more closely together.
As we confront instability, this is no time for introspection or isolationism. We must show unity and a new sense of purpose. This is the essence of our Joint Declaration today, which was consulted with all Member States of both organisations, and together we are already turning its words into action.
EU-US Leaders’ Summit : Remarks by President Jean-Claude Juncker
I would like to express my sympathy to the President of the United States and to the people of this great nation for the tragic events which happened yesterday night in Dallas, Texas.
These events like others are proving and showing that we are living in a world which is developing increasingly to more complexity and to more uncertainty.
The threats to our security take many forms and they are not located in any one place.
Therefore, our first duty is to show unity, and re-affirm the values we share. Human rights, freedom, democracy and, the keystone on which the others rest, the rule of law. They go to the core of the Euro-Atlantic alliance. They make us who we are. They do guarantee our way of life.
The United States, NATO and the European Union are central pillars of the global order. We complement each other, and together provide peace and stability in Europe, our neighbourhood and beyond.
Our combined strength remains formidable. But still we can work more closely together, and that is why we are here today.
We were discussing in the course of this morning’s meetings the consequences entailed by the vote of the British people to leave the European Union.
I would like to repeat here what we have said in Brussels the other day that we cannot start the negotiations until the British authorities have notified under the regime of Article 50 their intention to leave the European Union. But then we have to engage in negotiations, and I am not doing this – how can I say – in a hostile mood. I do think that even after the referendum the European Union and the United Kingdom share a community of interest, not only in the defence and the military sector, but in all the relevant sectors of the international life mainly as far as trade is concerned. But if a country wants to have a free access to the internal market, it is for sure that this country has to respect the four basic freedoms including the one of free movement for workers, but we will have these negotiations with our British friends and I do think it is in our interest and in the global interest to keep Britain as a strong ally, anyway, in NATO and as a strong partner when it comes to the relations of this then third country with the European Union.
As time is running out, Barack I will stop here, not without having said that we were discussing the TTIP issue and that we want to conclude these negotiations before the end of this year mainly as far as the big blocks of these negotiations are concerned. During the last European Council I was asking leaders one after the other if “yes” or “no” the European Union should continue to negotiate – and we received once again the mandate to conclude these negotiations.
Thanks so much, also for your leadership during these last years. Thank you Barack!
NATO stands resolute towards a secure and stable Afghanistan
NATO leaders, joined today (9 July 2016) by leaders from Resolute Support partner countries at the Warsaw Summit, have reaffirmed their commitment to the long-term security and stability of Afghanistan. Together with Afghanistan’s President Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah, they discussed the security situation in Afghanistan and the reform process carried out by the Afghan National Unity Government. They also took stock of the performance of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces, and laid out the way ahead for their continued support for Afghanistan.
“Afghan security forces are now responsible for security across the whole country,” NATO Secretary General, Jens Stoltenberg said. “They are defending the Afghan people with dedication and courage; we continue to train, advise and assist them; but Afghanistan still faces serious instability and violence; so our continued political, military and financial engagement is of great importance,” he added.
Mr. Stoltenberg highlighted three key decisions made. “First, we agreed to sustain our Resolute Support Mission beyond 2016, through a flexible, regional model. Second, we received firm national commitments to continue funding Afghan security forces through 2020. And third, we reaffirmed our support for a long-term political partnership and practical cooperation with Afghanistan,” he said. “So our message is clear: Afghanistan does not stand alone; and we are committed for the long haul,” he added.
Leaders from Japan and South Korea, as well as representatives from key international community partners, including the United Nations and the European Union, also attended the meeting. [Source+Pictures: NATO & EU]