Annual Report : International Terrorism

Turkey & Belgium…


March 26, 2013 – This report is submitted pursuant to the requirements for a congressionally mandated annual report codified at 22 U.S.C. § 2349aa-7(b). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, the U.S. government provided assistance related to international terrorism through the Departments of State, Homeland Security, Justice, and Treasury, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This report does not include assistance related to international terrorism provided through the Department of Defense.

Note: All monetary figures are presented in U.S. dollars.
Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program (ATA):

In FY 2012, $199.69 million in Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) funds, supported hundreds of courses, workshops, and technical consultations that trained 9,869 participants from over 50 countries. Course topics included crisis management and response, identifying travel document fraud, cyber security, bomb detection and disposal, airport security, border control, response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction, and hostage negotiation and rescue. Eighteen on-site visits assessed partner country critical counterterrorism capabilities and were used to both inform Country Assistance Plans and evaluate progress. As an example of the program’s effectiveness, ATA-trained Pakistani bomb squad members were called upon multiple times to defuse improvised explosive devices potentially saving many lives in Karachi and Peshawar and countless other locations within Pakistan.

Counterterrorism Engagement (CTE):
In FY 2012, $9.5million in NADR funds supported sixteen initiatives to build political will and capacities among foreign government officials and civil societies and support multilateral efforts, including through the newly launched Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF). CTE promotes effective counterterrorism policies and programs ranging from promoting rule of law and human rights to improving border and transportation security. Funding provided to critical countries and regions to promote awareness and implementation of international standards, norms, and best practices was implemented by expert counterterrorism bodies of the United Nations, regional organizations, and a non-governmental organization, the Institute for Security Studies. Specific examples of projects include training of South Asian judges and prosecutors to support and protect victims and witnesses in terrorism cases; promoting the GCTF Rabat Memorandum on Good Practices for Effective Counterterrorism Practice in the Criminal Justice Sector in East and West Africa; improving cyber security through the development of computer incident response teams throughout the Western Hemisphere, and developing a tool kit of best practices to secure bus transit from terrorist attack in the Southeast Asia region.
Border Security:

Through the Terrorist Interdiction Program/Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System (TIP/PISCES), $42 million in NADR funds sustained, upgraded, and expanded TIP/PISCES system capabilities at 184 ports of entry (POEs) in 18 countries, including biometric equipment upgrades at 53 POEs in 11 countries. With the signing of a Memorandum of Intention (MOI) in April 2012, Niger became the 18th PISCES partner country. During the July-September installment in Iraq, nine POEs were upgraded and over 200 host nation staff were trained to use the new capabilities. During the July-September installment in Ghana, TIP/PISCES staff installed PISCES hardware at four POEs and trained 186 host nation staff. World wide, TIP/PISCES processed an estimated 250,000 travelers every day.

Countering Violent Extremism (CVE):

Through the CVE Local Grants Program, the State Department provided funding to U.S. embassies and consulates for activities (not to exceed $150,000 per project) to support local efforts to counter violent extremist ideology and terrorist recruitment in communities confronting significant radicalization risks. Funding of $1.1 million in NADR monies were used for small grants, sponsoring 12 projects in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia (three projects), Kenya (two projects), Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, Serbia, and Sri Lanka. All activities focused on law enforcement capacity building.

The State Department also provided $725,000 in NADR funding to enhance the networking and communication skills of women committed to CVE. Networks of women in eight countries learned how to train other women to recognize the signs of radicalization and to mediate conflict that might give rise to violent extremism within their communities. In collaboration with the United Nations International Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), the State Department supported a pilot project on the disengagement and rehabilitation of incarcerated violent extremists. This initiative created a multilateral forum for policymakers, practitioners, and experts. Funding of $1.3 million in NADR funds enabled UNICRI to expand this initiative by including a technical assistance component to respond to bilateral government requests for assistance to address broader problems of radicalization in prisons, in addition to the disengagement and rehabilitation work. This funding also enabled UNICRI and its NGO partner, the International Center for Counterterrorism-The Hague, to complete a draft paper on international good practices in these two prison-related areas. The 30 members of the GCTF adopted this paper in June, commonly known as the Rome Memorandum, at the GCTF’s Second Ministerial Plenary in Istanbul.
Counterterrorism Finance (CTF) Training:

The Department of State provided $20.45 million in NADR CTF funding to multiple federal agencies for Anti-Money Laundering and Counterterrorist Finance (AML/CTF) training, and technical assistance programs for participants from multiple countries, while providing oversight of the interagency process to ensure that recipients of NADR funded training implemented plans in compliance with international AML/CTF standards.

• The State Department’s Bureau of Counterterrorism designed and implemented innovative courses and workshops to assist foreign governments to identify AML/CTF deficiencies, strengthen domestic abilities to address the terrorist financing threat, and to develop their awareness of and ability to confront kidnapping for ransom.

• The Deparment of Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) provided analytical exchanges with foreign Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs).

• The Department of Justice Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section provided expertise in the drafting of laws and regulations.

• The Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigations Office focused on developing forensic accounting techniques and an investigative, “follow the money” technique used to examine financial records and data to help determine hidden assets and money movement.

• The Federal Bureau of Investigations conducted international training in countering terrorist financing, money laundering, financial fraud, and complex financial crimes.

• DHS’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) conducted capacity building efforts through the HSI-led Cross-Border Financial Investigations Training (CBFIT) and Resident Cross-Border Financial Advisor programs (R/CBFIA). The CBFIT and R/CBFIA programs, supported by NADR funds, provided specialized training, technical assistance, and best practices on cross-border financial crime and money laundering to foreign law enforcement personnel, border control personnel, intelligence, regulatory agencies, and judicial authorities. These programs provided foreign partners with the capability to effectively implement relevant Financial Action Task Force Recommendations.

• The ICE HSI Trade Transparency Unit (TTU) conducted presentations on trade-based money laundering to hundreds of personnel from foreign law enforcement, customs authorities, and foreign military charged with border enforcement functions; as well as representatives from the financial sector from various countries around the world. The presentations and discussions resulted in numerous beneficial contacts and potential case leads.
Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Threat Reduction:
In FY 2012, $9.3 million in NADR funds were provided to secure or destroy at-risk or illicitly proliferated MANPADS, as part of a program to prevent acquisition of these and other advanced conventional weapons by terrorists, insurgents, or other non-state actors, and to reduce threats of accidental explosions. Since the program’s inception in FY 2003, these efforts led to the reduction of over 33,000 MANPADS in 38 countries and the improved security of thousands more MANPADS. The Department engaged 30 countries to reduce the threat and impact of MANPADS, focusing with its interagency partners on North Africa including Libya, and the Near East, North Africa, and Sahel regions. For more information on these efforts, please see the State Department fact sheet on MANPADS available.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism (WMDT) Program:

In FY 2012, WMDT received $6.042 million in NADR funding for projects that improved international capabilities to prevent, detect, and respond to radiological/nuclear terrorist attacks. Funding supported the U.S. Co-Chaired Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT), and the Preventing Nuclear Smuggling Program (PNSP). The GICNT is a multinational partnership of 85 countries and four international observers (International Atomic Energy Agency, European Union, INTERPOL, and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). The WMDT program facilitated the continued operation of GICNT Working Groups in Nuclear Forensics, Nuclear Detection, and Response and Mitigation, with all three working groups developing practical best practices and guidance documents. The PNSP assists in reducing the amount of nuclear and radioactive material currently on the black market and helps integrate these efforts with other U.S. and international threat reduction efforts. PNSP projects range from improving prosecutions of smugglers, enhancing nuclear forensics capabilities, orphan source amnesty projects, strengthening smuggling response protocols, and improving border security.
The Global Threat Reduction (GTR) Program:

GTR spearheads the most comprehensive U.S. effort to reduce the risk that biological, chemical, and nuclear experts will assist terrorists with a WMD attack. GTR received $69 million in NADR funding for efforts to prevent terrorists and proliferating states from acquiring WMD-related expertise, materials, technologies, and equipment. GTR leads the U.S. government’s principal global biosecurity effort, and works to improve the security of dangerous biological materials in countries that have a significant terrorist presence, developing bioscience capacity, and dangerous endemic pathogens. GTR also has the only U.S. chemical security program on improving chemical security best practices, raising awareness of chemical security, promoting the elimination of hazardous chemicals, and improving the management of dangerous chemicals in laboratory and industry settings.
Justice Sector and Rule of Law:

The Counterterrorism Unit (CTU) in the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (OPDAT) supported efforts to improve and develop criminal justice sector capacity in partner countries, enabling them to more effectively combat serious transnational crimes, including terrorism and the financing of terrorism. OPDAT efforts were also directed at improving the operation of criminal justice systems. The CTU received $14.6 million in NADR funding from the State Department to deploy Resident Legal Advisors (RLAs) to Bangladesh, Kenya, Malaysia, Mali, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, to increase host government capacity to effectively investigate and prosecute terrorism-related crimes, particularly financial crimes that help fund terrorism. In addition, new counterterrorism RLA programs were initiated in Iraq, Mauritania, and Niger. OPDAT also deployed a counterterrorism-focused Intermittent Legal Advisor (ILA) to Tunisia. The OPDAT RLA program in Mali was discontinued; funding was subsequently shifted to the RLA program in Niger.

DOJ’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) works with foreign governments to develop professional and transparent law enforcement institutions that protect human rights, combat corruption, and reduce the threat of transnational crime and terrorism. In FY12, the State Department provided $4.4 million in NADR funding for ICITAP’s program in Algeria. The multi-year funded program provides assistance in the areas of forensics, criminal investigations, and border security. ICITAP continues to focus on the design and delivery of a comprehensive police counterterrorism assistance program to the Algerian Gendarmerie Nationale. The State Department also provided $1.9 million in NADR funds for a multi-country program covering Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Algeria to field a full-time corrections advisor to address counterterrorism-related prison reform issues. In Indonesia, the advisor will coordinate with the Directorate General for Corrections and UNICRI to design and build countering violent extremism programs for terrorist inmates at selected pilot prisons.

The State Department also provided ICITAP with $810,500 in Assistance to Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA) to continue developing a biometric visa database system for the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and $313,000 in AEECA funds to field and support a full-time counterterrorism advisor to assist Bosnia and Herzegovina’s State Investigation and Protection Agency to develop its capacity to collect, analyze, and disseminate criminal intelligence.

Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism Country Reports on Terrorism

Domestic and transnational terrorist groups have targeted Turkish nationals and foreigners in Turkey, including, on occasion, U.S. government personnel, for over 40 years. Most prominent among terrorist groups in Turkey is the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). Composed primarily of ethnic Kurds with a nationalist agenda, the PKK operates from areas in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq and targets mainly Turkish security forces. Other prominent terrorist groups in Turkey include the Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP-C), a militant Marxist-Leninist group with anti-U.S. and anti-NATO views that seeks the violent overthrow of the Turkish state, and Turkish Hizballah (unrelated to the group similarly-named Hizballah operating in Lebanon). Public sources also highlight detentions of Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) members as well as supporters for al-Qa’ida (AQ) and other groups. The Turkish Workers’ and Peasants’ Liberation Army, though largely inactive, was still considered a potential threat by the Turkish government.
2011 Terrorist Incidents:

The PKK continued to demonstrate its nation-wide reach. Typical tactics, techniques, and procedures included ambushes on military patrols in the countryside, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) along known military or police routes, and bombings of both security and civilian targets in urban areas. Six attacks garnered particular attention and condemnation:

A May attack on the prime minister’s convoy in Kastamonu, near the Black Sea, using small arms and a roadside IED (the prime minister was not in the convoy at the time; one police officer was killed).

A July attack on Gendarmerie Personnel in Silvan using small arms and grenades that killed 13 Turkish security forces.

An August attack in Hakkari province’s Cukurca district left at least nine Turkish security personnel dead.

A September attack on a crowded Ankara street using a small vehicle-based IED killed three civilians and wounded 34. The PKK denied playing a role in the attack, though responsibility for the bombing was claimed by the Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAK), an organization suspected of having links to the PKK.

A September attack in Batman killed a woman and her four-year old daughter when PKK attackers opened fire from a vehicle.

In an October attack, the deadliest since 1993, the PKK killed 26 security forces in Hakkari province.

In July, Turkish national police arrested 15 alleged members of a Turkey-based, AQ-inspired terrorist cell. The group was reportedly preparing a large vehicle-borne IED-type attack against one of a small group of targets that included the U.S. embassy. Weapons, plans, photos of possible targets, and over 600 kilograms of explosives were seized during the arrests. As of December, one person had been released and 14 held for trial. Turkey continued to participate in the Department of State’s Antiterrorism Assistance program.

Legislation and Law Enforcement:

Counterterrorism law enforcement efforts in Turkey remained focused on the domestic threat posed by several terrorist groups, including the PKK. Turkey’s methodology and legislation are geared towards confronting this internal threat. Efforts to combat international terrorism are hampered by legislation that defines terrorism narrowly as a crime targeting the Turkish state or Turkish citizens. This definition of terrorism posed concerns for operational and legal cooperation. A draft law before Parliament on the Prevention of Terrorist Financing was initially intended to address the definitional issue; however, according to the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the current draft is insufficient to bring this and other areas of terrorist finance legislation up to international standards.

Separately, critics charged that Turkish authorities applied its counterterrorism laws overly broadly to stifle political discourse, arresting hundreds of political activists, journalists, military officials, and others over the year for crimes under Turkey’s terrorism laws. Current regulations governing pre-trial detentions allow terrorism and other suspects to be held for up to five years while awaiting trial. Political leaders had begun speaking openly of reforming the current counterterrorism law, but no specific legislation had been drafted by the end of 2011.

Countering Terrorist Finance:

Turkey is a member of the FATF, and in 2007, the FATF identified Turkey as a jurisdiction with significant anti-money laundering and counterterrorist financing (AML/CTF) vulnerabilities, chief among them Turkey’s incomplete criminalization of terrorist financing and weak national asset-freezing mechanisms. In response, in 2010 Turkey drafted but ultimately did not pass a law on the “Prevention of Terrorist Financing,” intended to address all CTF deficiencies identified by the FATF. In its October 2011 review of Turkey’s status, FATF found no improvement, reiterated its concerns that Turkey still has significant AML/CTF vulnerabilities, and included Turkey in its Public Statement. The same draft CTF law was resubmitted to parliament in October. The draft bill moved to the International Affairs Committee and two other parliamentary committees in November, where opposition parties have raised privacy and other legal concerns. The bill was under review in parliamentary committees at year’s end .

The regulation of banks is carried out by the Banking Regulatory and Supervision Agency and regulation of financial exchange houses, insurance companies, and jewelers is carried out by the Under Secretariat of Treasury. Stock exchanges are regulated by the Capital Markets Board. There is little coordination or sharing of best practices among the agencies with specific regard to AML/CTF competencies. Money/value transfer systems are illegal and as such there is no regulatory agency that covers this area.

The nonprofit sector is not audited on a regular basis for counterterrorist finance vulnerabilities and does not receive adequate AML/CTF outreach or guidance from the Turkish government. The General Director of Foundations issues licenses for charitable foundations and oversees them, but there are a limited number of auditors to cover the more than 70,000 institutions.

Turkish officials circulated U.S.-designated names to the security services for their awareness, though only UN-listed names were subject to asset-freezes.

For further information on money laundering and financial crimes, we refer you to the 2011 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), Volume 2, Money Laundering and Financial Crimes.
Regional and International Cooperation:
Turkey is a founding member of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF) and together with the United States, co-chaired the Forum’s inaugural session in September 2011 and worked assiduously to build international support for it. As co-chair, Turkey provided extensive secretariat support, including hosting a pre-GCTF launch conference in Istanbul in April.
Countering Radicalization and Violent Extremism:

The Government of Turkey has two significant programs in place to counter radicalization and violent extremism. The first, administered by the national police, is a broad-based outreach program to affected communities, similar to anti-gang activities in the United States. Police worked to reach vulnerable populations before terrorists did, to alter the prevailing group dynamics, and prevent recruitment. Police utilized social science research to undertake social projects, activities with parents and in-service training for officers and teachers. Programs prepared trainers, psychologists, coaches, and religious leaders to intervene to undermine radical messages and prevent recruitment.

The second program, administered by the Religious Affairs Office (Diyanet) of the Government of Turkey, promoted a mainstream interpretation of Islam and worked to undercut the message of violent religious extremists. In Turkey, all Sunni imams are employees of the Diyanet. In support of its message of traditional religious values, more than 66,000 Diyanet imams throughout Turkey conducted individualized outreach to their congregations. Diyanet similarly worked with religious associations among the Turkish diaspora, assisting them to establish umbrella organizations and providing them access to mainstream Hanafi instruction. Diyanet supported in-service training for religious leaders and lay-workers through a network of 19 centers throughout Turkey.

In 2011, the Government of Turkey reiterated its intent to follow up on its 2009 “democratic initiative” (also known as the “national unity project” or the “Kurdish opening”). The initiative was designed to address the social and economic inequalities in Turkish society that fuel Kurdish dissent. Concrete steps within the scope of the initiative were clearly devised to reduce the PKK’s support, by, for example, liberalizing laws governing the use of the Kurdish language in broadcasting, education, and state buildings; reducing the number of instances where counterterrorism laws are applied to non-violent crimes; and providing legal incentives to bring members of the PKK who have not engaged in violence back into civil society. To further these objectives, Turkish officials have announced plans to shift primary responsibility for counterterrorism efforts from the Turkish military to civilian security forces (National Police and Jandarma).



The primary mission of the Bureau of Counterterrorism (CT) is to forge partnerships with non-state actors, multilateral organizations, and foreign governments to advance the counterterrorism objectives and national security of the United States. Working with our U.S. Government counterterrorism team, CT takes a leading role in developing coordinated strategies to defeat terrorists abroad and in securing the cooperation of international partners

This report provides the Department of State’s annual, statutorily mandated assessment of trends and events in international terrorism that transpired in 2011, including country-by-country breakdowns of foreign government counterterrorism cooperation, and profiles of designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations.
Terrorist Designations
Current lists of Foreign Terrorist Organizations and State Sponsors of Terrorism.
The Global Counterterrorism Forum
An informal, multilateral counterterrorism platform with 30 founding members that promotes a strategic, long-term approach to dealing with the CT threat. The Forum identifies urgent needs, devises solutions, and mobilizes resources to address key civilian counterterrorism challenges. The Forum was launched in September 2011. Please visit for more information

Terrorist Designations
Current lists of Foreign Terrorist Organizations and State Sponsors of Terrorism

Belgian authorities maintained a well-coordinated and effective counterterrorism apparatus overseen by the Ministries of Interior and Justice. The primary actors in this apparatus were the Belgian Federal Police, State Security Service, Office of the Federal Prosecutor, and the inter-ministerial Coordination Unit for Threat Analysis. Belgium continued to investigate, arrest, and prosecute terrorism suspects and worked closely with U.S. authorities on counterterrorism matters.

Legislation and Law Enforcement:

On October 28, Belgian police arrested Ventura Tome Queiruga, a suspected member of Basque Fatherland and Liberty, who was wanted under a European arrest warrant submitted by Spain for terrorist attacks committed in the 1980s. The warrant was based on a 2000 Spanish judgment sentencing him to a 17-year prison sentence for attempted murder. Queiruga was handed over to Spanish police on December 13.On September 20, Belgium and the United States signed a Preventing and Combating Serious Crime agreement, which was undergoing parliamentary ratification procedures at year’s end. In late November, Minister of Justice Stefaan De Clerck signed an order to extradite convicted terrorist Nizar Trabelsi to the United States. Trabelsi, a Tunisian national, is serving a 10-year sentence in Belgian prison. He was arrested in Belgium in 2001 and later was convicted for plotting an attack on the Belgian Air Force base at Kleine Brogel, where U.S. military personnel are stationed. His lawyers filed an appeal against the extradition order with the European Court of Human Rights.

Countering Terrorist Finance:
Belgium is a member of the Financial Action Task Force. The Belgian Financial Intelligence Unit, CTIF, directed an efficient and comprehensive interagency effort to prevent terrorist financing. According to the CTIF, most of the criminal proceeds laundered in Belgium are derived from foreign criminal activity. In 2011, Belgian authorities responded to changes in money laundering patterns by accelerating the process of freezing suspicious transactions through more efficient cooperation between different levels of the law enforcement authorities.For further information on money laundering and financial crimes, we refer you to the 2011 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (I NCSR),
Regional and International Cooperation:
Belgium participated in European Union (EU), United Nations, and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe counterterrorism efforts. As an EU member state, Belgium supported EU aid to Sahel countries for counterterrorism capacity building.
In 2011, the Coordination Unit for Threat Analysis undertook further steps on the Action Plan on Radicalism. The goal of the action plan was to develop measures to limit the impact of extremist messaging. In addition, the Ministry of Interior continued to coordinate Belgium’s effort to develop a government-wide strategy to counter radicalization and violent extremism. In October, Belgian officials working on this strategy visited the United States to exchange views and learn about U.S. efforts in this area.

* Türkei: Einigung zwischen Regierung und PKK
* The CIA war against Syria

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